Introduction: Agriculture and allied activities is the only mainstay of the State’s economy where about 70% of the population depends on it. The State has two distinct topographical zones – valley and hill. The valley that is also known as “Rice bowl” of the State has an average altitude of 790 meters above MSL and its climate is sub-tropical to tropical to sub temperate. The hills, which constitute 9/10th of the total area, have sub temperate to temperate climate with an average altitude of 3000 m above MSL. The State has distinct winter, warm humid and rainy season. The average rainfall during the last 10 years was 1482.20 mm with heavy precipitation during the month of June, July and August. The growth of Agriculture in the State has been quite uneven and unsatisfactory for the reason that its production still depends on seasonal rainfall.
Since the attainment of Statehood in 1972 the State made tremendous progress in the field of agriculture. In fact agriculture is the backbone of the State economy till today and farming community has been backbone of the State agriculture.
Agriculture in the State in confined to 10.48% of the total geographical area (the geographical area being 22.327-lakh ha. and the net agricultural area being 2.345 lakh ha. The percentage of agricultural land in valley districts is 47% and that in the hill districts is 53%. According to 2001 census, the ratio between man and agricultural land in ha. is 1: 0.10. The area that is irrigated is 45,500 ha. i.e. 19.40% of the net agricultural land. The State is marginally deficit in cereals and highly deficit in the production of oilseeds and pulses. Inspite of the rapid advancement in the crop productivity, the faster rate of population growth poses a great problem to agriculture in the State.
Particular State Average National Average
Productivity of Rice 2100 Kg/ha (2012-13) 2177 Kg/ha (2010-11)
Foodgrain 2397 Kg/ha (2011-12) 1660 Kg/ha (2010-11)
Maize 1850 Kg/ha (2011-12) 1959 Kg/ha (2010-11)
Pulses 940 Kg/ha (2011-12) 537 Kg/ha (2010-11)
Wheat 2500 Kg/ha (2011-12) 2830 Kg/ha (2010-11)
Rapeseeds & Mustard 770 Kh/ha (2011-12) 1159 Kg/ha (2010-11)
Cropping Intensity 143.26% (2011-12) Consumption of Fertilizer 95.28( NPK) Kg/ha (2011-12)